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ClO2 CALCULATORS

How can you apply chlorine dioxide in air against COVID-19 and other diseases?

 

The COVID-19 pandemic has created intense need for contagion control in all types of conditions throughout the world. Chlorine dioxide presents what might be one of the most rapid, cost-effective and practical solutions for reducing coronavirus germs being transmitted among people.

Chlorine dioxide has demonstrated potent effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus

  • Laboratory testing showed the formulation of one liquid product with 24 ppmW of ClO2 destroyed more than 99.9% of SARS-CoV-19 in 10 seconds, and one mouth rinse containing sodium chlorite (stabilized chlorine dioxide) destroyed up to 98.4% in 30 seconds in simulated saliva. Study 10 , Study 12

 

On the US EPA's List N, 11 products containing chlorine dioxide and 12 products containing sodium chlorite (which is used to generate chlorine dioxide) are listed as effective disinfectants to use against COVID-19.

However, one single method cannot work for applying all chlorine dioxide products nor for all situations.

  • Different chlorine dioxide products' formulations vary significantly in the ways they are mixed, concentration levels, and time until full strength is reached and then diminished.

  • Many tools can be chosen for releasing chlorine dioxide into air, but they need accurate adaptations for use.

  • The size of an area and its environmental conditions also strongly influence the strength of chlorine dioxide needed for protection of the space.

 

Chlorine dioxide products are not widely marketed for use in air. Chlorine dioxide products with instructions customized for airborne use are very limited.

The COVID-19 pandemic presents intense need for contagion control, and using chlorine dioxide in air can radically increase the safety levels of both air and surfaces it contacts.

This website outlines steps that can be followed to help determine accurate amounts for your specific application, using a variety of tools in a variety of environments.

Answers to the following questions can provide guidance for determining how much chlorine dioxide to use in your specific situation.

1) What air concentration of chlorine dioxide is effective at destroying various viruses and bacteria?

2) What concentration of chlorine dioxide in air is safe for people to breathe?

  • "Permissible Exposure Limit Time-Weighted Average"
    0.1 ppmV air concentration approved by OSHA to be harmless to breathe 8 hours/day every workday for 45 years.

  • "Permissible Exposure Limit Short Term"
    0.3 ppmV is the NIOSH recommended maximum for any 15-minute time period.

3) What tools can be used to apply chlorine dioxide to air?

  • Options include: 

    • Simple open container, such as a drinking cup or bucket

    • Tabletop decorative water fountain

    • Simple open container along with small water pump and tubing

    • Simple open container, along with small air pump and tubing

    • Personal-size ultrasonic humidifier

    • Whole-room ultrasonic humidifier

    • "Fogger" machine

4) Which chlorine dioxide product formulations are appropriate?

  • Very few chlorine dioxide products have official approval for use in air around people. Therefore, most product labels** do not include instructions for this purpose.

  • However, US OSHA has approved chlorine dioxide gas itself to be present continually in air any workplace at up to 0.1 ppmV.

  • Open container, or air or water pump methods of emitting chlorine dioxide into air logically seem they should be able to release chlorine dioxide as a pure gas with almost no other elements, using almost any chlorine dioxide product.

  • On the other hand, emitting chlorine dioxide via a humidifier or fogger will release water and other compounds along with chlorine dioxide. These may include hard water minerals, surfactants, impurities, unreacted chlorine dioxide precursor chemicals, or other substances. The additional components in some chlorine dioxide products may not be of concern if humidifier use is not heavy nor extremely frequent. However, some products (especially low-purity products and ones made from technical grade sodium chlorite, such as MMS) may present more risks.
    **Some slow-release deodorizer packets are approved in some countries to be used around people in sufficiently large areas.

 

5) How many milligrams of "free" chlorine dioxide are needed for sanitizing a specific air space?

  • Use our helpful "Chlorine Dioxide In Air" Calculator below.

6) What adjustments are needed for for specific conditions?

  • Simply releasing the target amount of chlorine dioxide will not achieve the desired concentration in your room space. Various environmental conditions can require adjustments to be made.

 

Conditions that can affect chlorine dioxide use in air include:

  • Altitude

  • Temperature

  • Lighting conditions

  • Air flow from doors and windows

  • Air flow from HVAC systems

  • Humidity (including equilibrium of gas in air vs. within liquid aerosols)

  • Surface types in room

  • Build-up over time

~ More information on these will be added on this site soon. ~

7) How much of the chlorine dioxide product do you need to use in the application tool you have chosen, and how often?

  • For medium size ultrasonic humidifiers, use our calculator below.

  • We are developing calculators for using other methods.

 

Note: Calculators have been updated and are currently undergoing verification.

Calculate the amount of
Chlorine Dioxide needed for a specific concentration in air

Using Chlorine Dioxide in an Ultrasonic Humidifier

Technical Note

Chlorine dioxide's molecular weight is 67.45. For the calculators above, a conversion factor of 2.8 was used for chlorine dioxide in converting from 1 ppmV (parts-per-million volume/volume) to 2.8 mg/m3 in air.

* See NIOSH Occupational Exposure Banding e-Tool , and Parts Per Million (ppm) Converter for Gases .